When the baby is born, and the umbilical cord is separated, the blood can accumulate. The segment cord is still in connection with the placenta. Stem cells from the blood of the remaining placenta and umbilical cord are known as "umbilical cord blood cells (UCB)." This blood, which is of no use to the child or the mother, and has taken notice as a medical desecration for centuries, is one of the primary sources of stem cells.
UCB stem cells are unique and have promising applications for the future. How are cells in the allogeneic system immature, causing a weakened donor-derived immune response, and therefore lower in GVHD incidence than other sources of bone marrow stem cells (or peripheral cells)? The collection method is risk-free and straightforward for the donor (child or mother). Nothing like the development of stem cells, these are not ethically controversial.
Despite many advantages, umbilical cord stem cells have some limitations. It requires adequate collection, dosage, and storage, and a single UCB stem cell element has remained a limiting factor for adult recipient stem cells. Similarly, the patient UCB may not be useful in some cases since the history of the disease may also be present in the stem cells of UCB.
The umbilical cord blood can be kept in two ways. 1) UCB Private Banks where UCB is held for a specified price by donor family and later used by the child or his family. 2) UCB's public banks are like blood banks, where the pregnant woman can make her name available for free, and those who need them can use it for a specific rate.
The UCB Private Bank is recommended only in some instances, such as when the child's parents carry mutations due to genetic disorders of the blood, immune system, or congenital metabolic disorders. Private umbilical cord blood banks indicate that an older brother suffers from one of these conditions that might be suitable for UCB stem cell transplantation.